A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. The sphere has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you "see" the valve's position. The ball valve, along with the butterfly valve and plug valve, are part of the family of quarter turn valves.
Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after years of disuse. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications (and are often preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose). They do not offer the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this purpose.
Ball valves are used extensively in industry because they are very versatile, supporting pressures up to 700 bars and temperatures up to 200°C. Sizes typically range from 0.5 cm to 30 cm. They are easy to repair and operate.
The body of ball valves may be made of metal, plastic or metal with a ceramic center. The ball is often chrome plated to make it more durable.
The genericized trademark ball-o-fix is occasionally used after the original UK market leader.